Westlaw Conduct legal research efficiently and confidently using trusted content, proprietary editorial enhancements, and advanced technology. Temporary restraining order Akin to a preliminary injunction, it is a judge’s short-term order forbidding certain actions until a full hearing can be conducted. Subordination The act or process by which a person’s rights or claims are ranked below those of others. Senior judge A federal judge who, after attaining the requisite age and length of judicial experience, takes senior status, thus creating a vacancy among a court’s active judges. A senior judge retains the judicial office and may cut back his or her workload by as much as 75 percent, but many opt to keep a larger caseload. Probation officer Officers of the probation office of a court. Probation officer duties include conducting presentence investigations, preparing presentence reports on convicted defendants, and supervising released defendants.
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Parties to a contract can limit the amount each might owe the other, but cannot contract away the rights of a third party to make a claim. The Law Dictionary is your free online legal dictionary featuring Black’s Law Dictionary, the trusted source of law definitions and terms for over 100 years. The 2nd edition has over 15,000 legal terms for your business and research use. Unlike a law dictionary, which arranges and defines legal words and phrases individually and in alphabetical order, a legal terminology textbook arranges and defines legal words and phrases in groups and by topic. As a result, a student or other person interested in understanding an array of related legal words and phrases may prefer to use a legal terminology textbook instead. Wage garnishment A nonbankruptcy legal proceeding whereby a plaintiff or creditor seeks to subject to his or her claim the future wages of a debtor. In other words, the creditor seeks to have part of the debtor’s future wages paid to the creditor for a debt owed to the creditor.
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Nondischargeable debt A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. The trustee is a private individual or corporation appointed in all chapter 7, chapter 12, and chapter 13 cases and some chapter 11 cases. The trustee’s responsibilities include reviewing the debtor’s petition and schedules and bringing actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate. In chapter 7, the trustee liquidates property of the estate, and makes distributions to creditors. Trustees in chapter 12 and 13 have similar duties to a chapter 7 trustee and the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor’s plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors. Pretrial services A function of the federal courts that takes place at the very start of the criminal justice process – after a person has been arrested and charged with a federal crime and before he or she goes to trial.
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Court reporter A person who makes a word-for-word record of what is said in court, generally by using a stenographic machine, shorthand or audio recording, and then produces a transcript of the proceedings upon request. Read more about law dictionary here. Conviction A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant. Contract An agreement between two or more people that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Consumer bankruptcy A bankruptcy case filed to reduce or eliminate debts that are primarily consumer debts. Confirmation Approval of a plan of reorganization by a bankruptcy judge. Case file A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case.
Petition preparer A business not authorized to practice law that prepares bankruptcy petitions. Peremptory challenge A district court may grant each side in a civil or criminal trial the right to exclude a certain number of prospective jurors without cause or giving a reason.